Timeline (part I)

futurism in 1909

20 February
Le Figaro, Paris, publishes the Futurist Manifesto by F. T. Marinetti, later reissued as a series in Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 of Poesia in Milan and read aloud by Marinetti at the Teatro Alfieri, Turin, when his play La donna mobile was being performed.

Marinetti meets Boccioni, Bonzagni, Camona, Carrà, Erba, Martelli, Romani and Russolo.

During the general election Marinetti publishes his First Political Manifesto.


futurism in 1910

11 February
Balla, Boccioni. Bonzagni, Carrà, Romani, Russolo and Severini sign their names to the Manifesto of Futurist Painters. First produced as a pamphlet by the Poesia press; a second edition later appeared without the signatures of Romani and Bonzagni.

8 March
The first serate or 'evening' at which the painters took part was held at the Teatro Ciarella, Turin.

11 April
Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting, signed by Balla, Boccioni, Carrà, Russolo and Severini, published in Poesia (Marinetti’s Futurist Magazine).

27 April
Marinetti writes his Manifesto Against Passéist Venice signed by Atomare, Boccioni, Bonzagni, Buzzi, Carrà, Cavacchioli, Folgore, Gorrieri, Marinetti, Mazza, Palazzeschi, Russolo and Severini.

8 October
Marinetti on trial in Milan accused of an outrage against public taste in his book Mafarka le futuriste. He is acquitted but there is a Futurist demonstration in court.

Boccioni's first one-man exhibition at Ca'Pesaro.


futurism in 1911

11 January
Balilla Pratella writes his Manifesto of Futurist Musicians.

11 March
Balilla Pratella's Technical Manifesto of Futurist Music published. 

22 June
La Voce, organ of the rival 'Florentine Movement', publishes an article by Ardengo Soffici 'Arte libera e libera pittura futurista', a violent attack on Futurism and the Milan exhibition. Boccioni, Carrà, Marinetti and Russolo organise a 'punitive expedition' against the author. They go to Florence, where, at the Café delle Glubbe Rosse, a haunt of Bohemians, they have an animated discussion with Soffici, Prezzolini, Slataper and Papini. A fight breaks out and they are taken to police headquarters. Later, having calmed down, they discover that Futurists and 'Vociani' really have many things in common.

Boccioni and Carrà leave for Paris to prepare for a Futurist exhibition which is to take place the following February at Bernheim-Jeune's gallery. Through Severini they make contact with the Paris art world, and they see the work of the Cubists and meet Apollinaire.

Marinetti travels to Libya as a war correspondent.


futurism in 1912

5 - 12 February
Exhibition of Futurist Paintings by Boccioni, Carrà, Russolo and Severini at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris. Boccioni, Carrà and Russolo are present at the opening, and later broaden their knowledge of the works of the Cubists and Symbolists.

Exhibition moves to London (March), Berlin (April), Brussels (June), The Hague (August), Amsterdam (September) and Munich (October).

25 March
'Manifesto of Futurist Women' by Valentine de Saint-Point published as a pamphlet.

11 April
Boccioni publishes his Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture.

11 May
Marinetti publishes his 'Technical Manifesto of Futurist Literature' as a Preface to Zang tumb tumb (Bombardamento di Adrianopoli).


futurism in 1913

21 February
Musica Futurista per Orchestra by Pratella performed at the Teatro Costanzi, Rome.

2 March
The first of the Futurist soirées, or serata, to be held in Rome at the Teatro Costanzi.

11 March
Luigi Russolo's manifesto The Art of Noise published in Milan as a pamphlet.

11 May
Marinetti publishes his manifesto Destruction of Syntax - Imagination without Strings - Words-in-Freedom published in Lacerba (Florence).

Intonorumori (Noise Intoners) built by Russolo and Ugo Piatti demonstrated at the Teatro Stocchi, Modena.

Russolo's manifesto The Futurist Intonorumori published in Milan.

11 August
Carrà publishes his manifesto The Painting of Sounds, Noises and Smells.

11 August
The first public performance of intonorumori at the Casa Rossa, Milan.

15 September
Apollinaire's manifesto 'Futurist Anti-Tradition' published in Lacerba.

1 October
Marinetti's Manifesto of the Variety Theatre published in Lacerba. translated into English, it later appeared in the Daily Mail (London; 21 November 1913) and The Mask (January 1914).

11 October
Boccioni, Carrà, Russolo and Marinetti sign the 'Futurist Political Programme', published in Lacerba on 15 October.


futurism in 1914

Marinetti visits Russia.

28 April  
Boccioni's book Pittura scultura futurists is published.

April to May 
International Futurist Free Exhibition at Sprovieri's Galleria Futurista, Rome.

Early May
Marinetti presents three evenings of 'dynamic and synoptic declamation' at the Doré Gallery, London.

Russolo and Marinetti give twelve performances of the Intonarumori at the London Coliseum.
The Futurists stage a number of interventionist demonstrations.

1 August
Antonio Sant'Elia's Manifesto of Futurist Architecture published in Lacerba.

11 September  
Balla and Cangiullo sign the manifesto 'Anti-Neutral Clothes' and as a result some anti-neutral clothes are made and worn by Balla, Cangiullo and Marinetti.

15-16 September
Boccioni, Marinetti, Mazza, Piatti and Russolo put on more interventionist demonstrations in Milan, at the Teatro Dal Verine and in the Piazza Duomo, and as a result are arrested.

20 September
Boccioni, Carrà, Marinetti, Piatti and Russolo sign their manifesto 'Futurist Synthesis of War'.


futurism in 1915

11 January 
Corra, Marinetti and Settimelli write their manifesto The Futurist Synthetic Theatre, following which the Synthetic Theatre (sintesi) goes on tour.

First collection of sintesi published.

11 March
Balla and Depero publish the manifesto The Futurist Reconstruction of the Universe and Depero is officially invited to join the Futurists.

Futurist Scenography and Choreography by Prampolini, published in La Balza.

11 April  
Balla, Corra, Marinetti, Russolo and Sant'Elia join a battalion of volunteer cyclists.

28 November to 5 December
Thirty six sintesi are published by Gli Avvenimenti in a supplement on 'Futurist Synthetic Theatre'. In April 1916 the newspaper published forty three more scripts in another supplement with the same title.

Marinetti publishes War, The World's Only Hygiene a manifesto based on a volume of poems, also published in 1915, in which he exulted over the outbreak of World War One and insisted that Italy join in.


futurism in 1916

1 June
The founding in Florence of the journal Italia Futurista directed by Corra and Settimelli.

6 July
Sant'Elia receives a decoration after an operation on Mount Zevio.

17 August
Boccioni, after falling from his horse during a military exercise the day before, dies.

10 October
Sant'Elia killed taking part in an assault at Monfalcone.

15 November
The manifesto The Futurist Cinema, signed by Marinetti, Corra, Settimelli, Ginna, Balla and Chiti is published in L’Italia futurista.

Vita Futurista, one of the earliest avant garde films, is produced by Ginna and other Futurists.

The 'Manifesto of Futurist Science', signed by Carli, Chiti, Corra, Ginna, Mara, Marinetti and Settimelli, promises to be "anti-German, adventurous, whimsical, safety-phobic, drunk with the unknown".

Balla and Depero both engaged in designing stage sets and costumes for Diaghilev's Ballets Russe.

Depero has a one-man exhibition in Rome, his Esposizione Futurista, at which he shows over 200 pieces of his own work. 


futurism in 1917

28 January
The Futurist film, Vita Futurista (Futurist Life), is shown to the public for the first time at the Niccolini Theatre, Florence.

12 April
Feu d'Artifice (Fireworks), an actorless performance, staged by Balla for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes at Teatro Costanzi, Rome. 

Marinetti wounded at war, but recovers in hospital.

8 July
'Manifesto of Futurist Dance' published by Marinetti. Radioscopia by Canguillo and Petrolini mixes actors and audience in a performance in Naples.

Carlo Carrà meets Giorgio de Chirico and discovers a marked similarity in their work. Together they go on to develop Pittura Metaphysica (Metaphysical Painting). Carrà leaves the Futurist movement, this signals the end of the first wave and the beginning of a second wave for the futurist movement.

17 December
Russolo is seriously wounded in the head, after 18 months of rehabilitation he recovers.