Timeline (part II)


futurism in 1919

Marinetti joins the Fascists and produces the political manifestos 'What is Futurism?' and 'The Manifesto of the Futurist Party' and his important political texts 'Futurist Democracy: Political Dynamism' and 'Beyond Communism'.

Depero establishes the Casa d'Arte Futurista (House of Futurist Art) in Rovereto, producing toys, tapestries and furniture in the Futurist manner.

After Mussolini is defeated in the elections, he and Marinetti are arrested then released.

The Great National Futurist Exhibition shows in Milan, Genoa and Florence.


futurism in 1920

Marinetti publishes 'Against Feminine Luxury'.

Marinetti accuses the Fascists of being reactionary and passéists. The Futurists break away from the Fascists (only to re-associate themselves, albeit less vigourously, in 1922).


futurism in 1921

11 January
Marinetti's Manifesto of Tactilism read at the Theatre de I'Oeuvre (Paris) and published in Comoedia. 

'The Theatre of Surprise' manifesto signed by Marinetti and Canguillo. It was published in Il Futurismo on 11 January 1922.

30 September
The Theatre of Surprise company performs in Naples, then tours Palermo, Rome, Florence, Genoa, Turin and Milan. The company continues to tour until 1923.


futurism in 1922

Russolo develops the Noise Harmonium or Rumorarmonio.

The Great International Futurist Exhibition is held in Berlin.

Futurists take part in the Fascist's 'March on Rome' which made Mussolini dictator of Italy. 

With the Fascists in power, all thoughts of Futurism as a political party or power are dropped and thenceforth the aspirations of the Futurists are limited to cultural and artistic action.

Within two years fascism changed direction and began to reject Futurist support. In his determination to win over the bourgeoisie Mussolini abandoned the essential struggle for change and disavowed Marinetti.


futurism in...

Marriage of FT Marinetti and Benedetta Cappa.

First Futurist Congress in Milan.

Benedetta publishes her first Futurist novel La forze umane (Human Forces).

The Nuovo Teatro Futurista presents Depero's mechanised ballet Anihccam of the Year 3000 and tours twenty eight Italian cities.

Marinetti published 'Futurism and Fascism' that argued Fascism was a natural extension of Futurism.

Benito Mussolini personally selects Marinetti as a founder member of his nationalistic Italian Academy.

Depero Futurista the famous Bolted Book is published by Dinamo-Azari in Milan. 

'Manifesto of Aerial Painting' published. Signed by Marinetti, Balla, Prampolini, Depero, Dottori, Fillia, Somenzi, Benedetta, Tato and Rosso.
Depero begins working for Vouge and Vanity Fair.

December 1930
Marinetti publishes the 'Manifesto of Futurist Cuisine'.

First official exhibition of aeropittura (aeropainting) held at the Galleria Pesaro, Milan.

Russolo develops the Enharmonic Piano.

Depero publishes Campari Futurist Single Issue containing his highly original advertising campaigns for the Campari company.

Marinetti strongly condemned anti-Semitism in Fascist politics and art.
Marinetti, now at 55, volunteers for active service and joins Italian troops in Russia.

Marinetti returns to Venice, exhausted, after fighting in Russia.


Marinetti moves his family to Lake Como where, with the Italian defeat in prospect, they would be close to the Swiss border.

2 December 
Marinetti dies of a heart attack in Bellagio, Como.